There are many typical milestones of child development for every age group. Understanding what is normal and expected to change for a child at any given age is very important in understanding how to best parent and discipline. Here are some of the typical developmental changes to expect with your 9 – 11 year old.
- Adolescent growth spurt begins 2 years earlier for girls than boys.
- Gross motor skills of running, jumping, throwing, catching, kicking, batting, and dribbling are executed more quickly and with better coordination.
- Reaction times improves, contributing to motor skill development.
- Depth cues evident in drawings through overlapping objects, diagonal placement, and converging lines.
- Logical thought remains tied to concrete situations until the end of middle childhood.
- Piagetian tasks continue to be mastered in a step-by-step fashion.
- Planning improves.
- Memory strategies of rehearsal and organization become more effective.
- Applies several memory strategies at once.
- Memory strategy of elaboration appears.
- Long-term knowledge base grows larger and becomes better organized.
- Cognitive self-regulation improves.
- Word definitions emphasize synonyms and categorical relations.
- Grasps double meanings of words, as reflected in comprehension of metaphors and humor.
- Understanding of complex grammatical constructions improves.
- Adapts messages to the needs of listeners in complex communicative situations.
- Conversational strategies become more refined.
EMOTIONAL / SOCIAL
- Self-esteem tends to rise.
- Distinguishes ability, effort, and luck in attributions for success and failure.
- Has an adaptive set of strategies for regulating emotion.
- Can “step into another’s shoes” and view the self from that person’s perspective.
- Later, can view the relationship between self and other from the perspective of a third, impartial party.
- Appreciates the linkage between moral rules and social conventions.
- Peer groups emerge.
- Friendships are based on mutual trust.
- Becomes aware of more gender stereotypes, including personality traits and school subjects, but has a more flexible appreciation of what males and females can do.
- Sibling rivalry tends to increase.